Hyperpigmentation:Types and Treatments

What is Hyperpigmentation?

Hyperpigmentation is a common condition in which certain areas of the skin are darker than others. “Hyper” refers to more, and “pigment” refers to colour.

Hyperpigmentation can manifest as brown, black, grey, red, or pink patches or spots. The spots are also known as age spots, sun spots, or liver spots.

Hyperpigmentation is a term that describes darker-looking skin rather than a medical condition. It can manifest itself in small patches, cover large areas, or affect the entire body.

Age spots, melasma, and post-inflammatory trauma are the three main types. An injury, sun exposure, or a skin condition such as acne can all cause post-inflammatory trauma.


Types of Hyperpigmentation



Melasma is the most common type of hyperpigmentation.Hyperpigmentation can occur anywhere on the body, but it is most common on the stomach and face. 

Melasma affects more women than men due to hormonal changes, and it is more common during pregnancy. Sun exposure and medications such as oral contraceptives are also common triggers.

Melasma tends to improve with age due to hormonal changes that occur with the natural ageing process. Furthermore, it appears to run in families, indicating that this disorder has a genetic component.


Sunspots, also known as liver spots or solar lentigines and age spots. They are caused by excessive sun exposure over time. They typically appear as brown, tan or black spots on sun-exposed areas such as the hands and face.It can affect usually older adults to those with extended sun exposure.

Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation

Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation spots or patches of darkened skin that appear after an inflammatory skin condition, such as acne or eczema anywhere on the body are people who have had inflammation or an injury to the skin.

Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation can develop following skin inflammation caused by an injury, cuts, burns, acne, or lupus. It can appear anywhere on the body, but sun exposure can enhance it.


When hyperpigmentation first appears, it’s important to see a dermatologist for a proper diagnosis because your symptoms could be caused by another skin condition. Once diagnosed, treatment aims to reduce pigment production while also removing areas of excess pigmentation that have already appeared. Overall, hyperpigmentation treatment should be viewed as a marathon, not a sprint. Results can take weeks or months to appear.

There are some chemical cosmetic procedures that can also lighten areas of skin to reduce the appearance of hyperpigmentation.They are;laser therapy,intense pulsed light,chemical peels

A chemical peel uses higher concentrations of acids to treat a specific area of skin. They remove the top layer of your skin to reduce the appearance of hyperpigmentation (epidermis). Deeper versions may also penetrate your skin’s middle layer (dermis) to produce more dramatic results.

Chemical peels can be painful and cause a burning sensation for a few minutes, but this is treatable with cold compresses and over-the-counter pain medication.

Although many chemical peels are available OTC, you may want to consider a professional-grade peel at your dermatologist’s office. These are more potent and produce faster results.

Because of their strength, in-office peels may increase your risk of side effects. Talk with your dermatologist about your individual risks.

The following are some of the risks associated with both at-home and in-office chemical peels:

Reliable Source:

  • redness
  • irritation
  • blistering
  • infection
  • scarring
  • allergic response

Chemical peels may not be the best treatment option for you if you spend a lot of time in the sun. Chemical peels make your skin more vulnerable to the sun’s rays.

The sun can aggravate hyperpigmentation if you don’t use enough sunscreen and other UV protection. You should take extra precautions for at least one week following your last chemical peel.